How The Internet Has Evolved Over Time

Many people have heard of the Internet. In fact, according to TechPulse360, over one billion people use the Internet each day. With such an extensive number, it is easy to see exactly how the Internet has expanded over the past thirty years. Few people know the history of the Internet. However, it is easy to notice. Each year computers are getting faster and smaller. Each year, the Internet is getting faster and better. Something that started as a government project is now becoming one of the most commonly used things in the world.

The history of the Internet begins in the year 1973, where it was created by a group of people from ARPANET. ARPANET was a government organisation. Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn led this group. The project was meant to allow other computer networks to connect and communicate with one another.

In 1976, Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe developed the Ethernet. The Ethernet essentially allowed the coaxial cable to move data faster than normal. This was the first step to developing the LAN networks. In addition, it was the first step to making the Internet faster.

1983 marks the time when every single computer that was connected to the Internet had no choice but to use the TCP/IP protocol. Because of this, 1983 was the year when the use NCP protocol ended.

The National Science Foundation began working on the new T1 lines in the 1980s. By the time they were finished in 1988, traffic began to increase. Because of this increase in traffic, the NSF began working on a second update.

In 1990 the non-profit organisation ANS formulated the idea for a T3 line. It was a 45mpbs line and by 1991, all of the NSF websites were using this new network. In addition, ILEC created ADSL, or Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. This type of technology allowed its users to surf the web. ADSL later became DSL.

In 1995, the NSF stopped allowing free direct access to the NSF backbone. This period marks the time when people began to pay for web hosting. NSF allowed four companies to have this direct access. These four companies consequently sold access to the server for fifty dollars a year. This cost did not include .gov and .edu domains.

Broadband was introduced in 2000 as a better alternative to dial-up. The beginning of broadband marked the beginning of the Internet, as we know it today. Because of Broadband, users are able to download music and videos. The Internet became at least ten times faster than dial-up. It is also hard to forget the creation of 802.11b, more commonly known as Wi-Fi. Wireless Internet allowed the use of handheld devices and the ability to take the Internet anywhere that you are.
The evolutionary speed of the Internet has taken us to the next level in communication and its still unknown how far we can really go?

How The Internet Has Developed Over The Years

Dial up internet was where it all started for the masses of people who wanted to get online in the comfort of their own homes. Computers were rarer in times gone by than they are today, when many homes may even own more than one. Dial up internet was amazing at the time, but it was also frustratingly slow. It also meant that you could not use your phone line, and if anyone wanted to call you they would find the line engaged.

Then came the next new thing – broadband internet. This promised to be much faster and more convenient, and indeed it was. Suddenly we all got our phone lines back, as the broadband service came into our homes in a different way. Now we could go back to using our phone whenever we wanted, without tying it up whenever we went online.

Broadband was definitely faster, but developments are still taking place today that have made it faster still. Fibre optic internet is the way of the future, and it is being rolled out across many parts of the country by several companies.

But it doesnt stop there. We used to be limited to using the internet when we were at home, or at another place that had an internet connection. But this has all changed because we now have mobile broadband as well. This is accessible by way of a Broadband Dongle. This unusually named item plugs into a laptop via its USB port and acts as a mobile internet connection. It means we can now go out and about with our laptops and still get online if we should need to.

Needless to say this has made a huge difference to people who work and travel a lot. A Mobile Broadband Dongle is a great way of getting online to answer emails, surf the internet and monitor our websites when we are travelling. Instead of wasting time sitting on a train or at an airport, we can use the internet via a broadband dongle and make the most of the service we get. It means we can be a lot more practical with our time, using it more than we would otherwise.

A mobile broadband dongle would have been unthinkable even a few years ago. But thanks to advances in technology we now have many more ways to connect to the internet. We can even go online via smart phones now, but we still need laptops in many different ways. If you need to have access to the internet for work, no matter where you might be, a dongle could be the answer you have been looking for.

It makes you wonder what will happen next, doesnt it?

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Increase Your Career Abilities With Microsoft Mcsa Sql Server 2012 Certification

In recent years, Microsoft has revamped their certification tracks for several of their product. One amongst their newer certification tracks is the Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) that replaces the Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP). The MCSA for SQL Server 2012 is that the base level certification for Microsoft relational database answer, and is followed by the Microsoft Certified Solutions professional (MCSE) and also the Microsoft Certified Solutions Master (MCSM). so as to realize the MCSA for SQL Server 2012, you want to pass 3 exams Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 (Exam 70-461), Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Databases (Exam 70-462), and Implementing an information Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2012 (Exam 70-463). Upon roaring completion of all 3 exams, the MCSA: SQL Server 2012 is awarded. In keeping with Microsoft, this certification proves that you simply have the required qualifications to land a grip as a info developer or info analyst.

To earn the MCSA: SQL Server 2012 certification you need to pass three exams:
Exam 70-461: Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012:- Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012 is meant for database professionals with a minimum of two years SQL Server experience. It tests mastery of writing SQL queries and includes coverage of queries, indexes, and hold on procedures, triggers, error handling and additional.
Exam 70-462: Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Databases:- Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Databases is meant for database administrators who work with the installation, maintenance and configuration of SQL Server databases. It tests mastery of info administration tasks, backup procedures, storage optimization, and info security
Exam 70-463: Implementing a Data Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2012:- Implementing information Warehouses with Microsoft SQL Server 2012 is meant for info professionals who add Extract rework Load (ETL) and information storage environments. It includes coverage of Master information Services, information Quality Services, information synchronization, ETL, SQL Server Integration Services and Windows Azure SQL Databases.

Candidates who with success complete these 3 exams are awarded the MCSA on SQL Server 2012. Once youve earned your MCSA certification, you will want to pursue one amongst the advanced info certifications. You will additionally want to pursue certification during a completely different technology, like Oracle or Microsoft Access.

Upgrading certifications to SQL 2012
If you have got any MCTS on SQL Server 2008, you wish to pass 2 exams to earn your MCSA: SQL 2012:
Exam 70-457: Transition Your MCTS on SQL Server 2008 to MCSA: SQL Server 2012, Part 1
Exam 70-458: Transition Your MCTS on SQL Server 2008 to MCSA: SQL Server 2012, Part 2
Before I move to my expertise with those exams, i would like you to grasp that if you have got AN MCITP on SQL 2008, you will need to contemplate one amongst the subsequent exams once passing to the 2 listed on top of to upgrade your MCITP to AN MCSE in SQL 2012.

Ccnp Certification Bcmsn Exam Tutorial Server Load Balancing (slb)

When you’re working on your BCMSN exam on your way to CCNP certification, you’ll read at length about how Cisco routers and multilayer switches can work to provide router redundancy – but there’s another helpful service, Server Load Balancing, that does the same for servers. While HSRP, VRRP, and CLBP all represent multiple physical routers to hosts as a single virtual router, SLB represents multiple physical servers to hosts as a single virtual server.

In the following example, three physical servers have been placed into the SRB group ServFarm. They’re represented to the hosts as the virtual server

The hosts will seek to communicate with the server at, not knowing that they’re actually communicating with the routers in ServFarm. This allows quick cutover if one of the physical servers goes down, and also serves to hide the actual IP addresses of the servers in ServFarm.

The basic operations of SLB involves creating the server farm, followed by creating the virtual server. We’ll first add to the server farm:

MLS(config)# ip slb serverfarm ServFarm

MLS(config-slb-sfarm)# real

MLS(config-slb-real)# inservice

The first command creates the server farm, with the real command specifying the IP address of the real server. The inservice command is required by SLB to consider the server as ready to handle the server farm’s workload. The real and inservice commands should be repeated for each server in the server farm.

To create the virtual server:

MLS(config)# ip slb vserver VIRTUAL_SERVER

MLS(config-slb-vserver)# serverfarm ServFarm

MLS(config-slb-vserver)# virtual

MLS(config-slb-vserver)# inservice

From the top down, the vserver was named VIRTUAL_SERVER, which represents the server farm ServFarm. The virtual server is assigned the IP address, and connections are allowed once the inservice command is applied.

You may also want to control which of your network hosts can connect to the virtual server. If hosts or subnets are named with the client command, those will be the only clients that can connect to the virtual server. Note that this command uses wildcard masks. The following configuration would allow only the hosts on the subnet /24 to connect to the virtual server.

MLS(config-slb-vserver)# client

SLB is the server end’s answer to HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP – but you still need to know it to become a CCNP! Knowing redundancy strategies and protocols is vital in today’s networks, so make sure you’re comfortable with SLB before taking on the exam.

Why Environment Monitoring Systems are essential in every server room

Information Technology support is not just about setting up your business IT infrastructure and fixing your server incase it collapses. A large chunk of work done by reputable IT consultants involves regular monitoring of your server system to ensure that everything is working as it should. Monitoring servers are extremely important and are central to productivity. Unfortunately, this is one aspect that is often disregarded in terms of facilities management. If your building has a data centre (central server), then it is imperative and essential to install a proper monitoring system that will ensure that conditions in your server room are in proper order.

Environmental threats in your server room can cause more damage than hardware or software problems. These threats include changes in temperature, humidity, the presence of water and so on. One of the most common environmental threats in any server room is heat. Critical rises or drops in temperature can lead to failure of equipment. Also, any amount of water from a faulty sprinkler system to a flash flood or changes in humidity can damage your system. High temperatures, humidity and water can shorten the life of expensive equipment and can cause downtime or even failure of critical network systems.

Failure in equipment means that your business will not be able to run efficiently and effectively for hours on end or even days, until the problem can be fixed or equipment can be replaced. This means a reduction in efficiency and productivity of your company, and of course in expenses incurred. To prevent disasters like this, the use of environment monitoring systems are essential.

By having an environment monitoring system that can relay information about changes in your server room, you can have peace of mind knowing that you are fully aware of what is happening in your server room at all times. Environment monitoring systems are able to detect threatening conditions such as fires, floods, intense temperatures before your equipment is damaged or destroyed by the incorporation of a wide range of sensors. The environment monitoring systems are able to alert users via siren, alarm, beacon, voice call or even by SMS. Systems with cutting edge technology also allow you to manage your server room remotely, and reboot servers and network devices remotely if necessary.

Error C1041724 Mounting Exchange Server Database

Exchange Server databases’ transactions are temporarily stored in transaction log files. At times, you need to remove these files manually, usually when the disk runs out of space or the circular logging is disabled. If you come to such situations, it is recommended to determine that the logs have been committed to database or otherwise will cause problems. The database usually shows Dirty Shutdown state in such cases. However, the other reason for this is that database is corrupt. If it is, you should look for Exchange Recovery solutions.

You can take the following situation when you try to mount an Exchange Server database. In an attempt of mounting the database, you might receive an error as below:

An internal processing error has occurred. Try restarting the Exchange System Manager or the Microsoft Exchange Information Store service, or both.

ID no: c1041724
Exchange System Manager

The mount operation fails after you receive this error message.


Error c1041724 can be encountered if you have run eseutil /p repair utility on the affected database. At this point if Eseutil log files remain intact and are not removed, the database can fail to start with the above error.


To isolate the issue, you need to proceed as follows:

1.You need to first check if eseutil /p command was run. To do so, you should run eseutil /mh command for pub1.edb and priv1.edb and check the repair count value. If it is other than ‘0’, this shows that the command was run.
2.From the previous step, you also need to check for the database consistency. If it exists in Clean Shutdown state, which shows that the log files have been committed, you can safely remove the log files from Exchange Server folder, Mdbdata folder to a backup folder and mount the database.
3.If the database shows ‘Dirty Shutdown’ state, it may be because either all the log files have not been committed yet or the database is corrupt. You can wait for sometime to determine if uncommitted transactions is the case. If not, the database is corrupt that you need to restore from backup or by performing soft recovery.

In cases when database remains corrupted with no access to a suitable backup, you can use third-party Exchange Server Recovery utilities. These special applications allow safe extraction of user mailboxes without any modification to the original content. Exchange Recovery utilities provide you interactive design plus impressive features to experience.

Stellar Phoenix Mailbox Exchange Recovery is a complete tool that repairs Exchange database repair systematically. It is a safe and powerful Exchange Server Recovery tool that supports Exchange Server 5.5, 2000 and 2003. The tool can restore mailboxes in individual .pst files, which can be directly accessed in Outlook. The software is enriched with a realistic approach to repair corrupted EDB file in each instance.

Shall We Ban Internet Slang In News And Formal Documents

In the modern society, internet has played a more and more important role in our daily life. Consequently, many internet slang terms such as PK hold gelivable become popular almost overnight. Some of them are even used frequently by some media such as in the newspapers, magazines. Some editors of the textbooks even employ them in the textbooks. Opinions of the employment of internet slang terms in media or formal documents vary from person to person. Some people assume that we should ban the use of internet slang terms in formal or official documents as they may mislead the young generation while others believe that it is not necessary to do this because it is an inevitable tendency to use the internet slangs. Supporters for the adoption of internet slang terms also account for such phenomenon because they think anything that exists is reasonable. However, for the healthy development of language usage, internet slang should be banned.
Firstly, repeated use of internet slang will mislead the youngsters. Nowadays, with the consummation of internet facilities, nearly everyone has an access to it. Among them, teens form a large group of netizens. Therefore, they may come across many internet slang terms. To their surprise, some terms are not in conformity with their original meanings. As a result, they are not sure which meaning to choose when they want to express their ideas.
Secondly, some internet slang terms have derogatory sense and are often used to scold people. Once teens learn such meanings, they will use them in their daily life and develop a bad habit in using language. Whats worse, they will consider use of these terms as fashionable and may follow the fashion blindly. It will do much harm to their healthy development both mentally and emotionally. Hence the internet slang terms should be banned.
Thirdly, although many items become popular overnight and to use them is even considered as a fashion, fashion will pass by soon. Only those words that can undergo the selection of people as well as test from time can be accumulated into the literature reservoir. In this sense, it is far from enough for us to adopt the slang terms because they have not been tested by the time.
In a word, although the internet slang terms are popular and expressive for a period of time, we still need to think twice before we allow them to enter into the linguistic family.

IT Support Pasadena Connect MAC to Windows Server Share

This is a transcript from a series of tutorial videos provided by Dependable Computer Guys, Inc located in Los Angeles California. More people are bringing MAC’s into the workplace, so Ben West From Dependable demonstrates how to connect a MAC to a Windows Server Share. Ben West can be seen on DCG’s video channel on youtube. Dependable Computer Guys, Inc. provides IT Support in Pasadena and great Los Angeles since 1993.

Hi, I’m Ben from Dependable Computer Guys, and I’m one of their network server engineers. We have clients bringing in Macontosh computers into the office and need to connect to Windows servers in order to access their files. Today I’m going to show you how to connect from a Mac to a Windows server share.

You can start by going to “Go” on the Finder menu. Then click “Connect to Server”. You can also use the Apple K shortcut. Once the Connect to Server dialog comes up, you can type in “smb://your server name” and click on “Connect”.

You will then be prompted for the login to your Windows server. In this instance, we’ll be using the administrator. There’s no need to specify the domain in this step. Once inserted, you can click on “Connect”.

You’ll receive a list of volumes that you can connect to. These are “Windows Server Shares”, that you would normally see by browsing the server. Go to the list and select the share that you want to access and click “OK”.

It will then bring up a folder containing all of the items in that share. By default, Finder turns off all the network shares on the desktop. So you can click on Finder, and then “Preferences”. Check the box for connected servers. You will now see the share list on the desktop for easy access.

Once you’re done, you can drag the network share down to the dock and disconnect it.

I hope you found this demo on connecting a Mac to a Windows Server Share helpful. If you have any questions about connecting your Macintosh to a Windows server, feel free to contact me in the office at Dependable Computer Guys.

DCG exists to contribute to the success of our clients’ small businesses by helping them Monitor, Manage, & Optimize their mission critical information technologies.

Choosing a reliable IT provider is one of the best decisions you will ever make, one which will impact all aspects of your business. A solid partner can really make a difference.

For small business network support, trust Dependable Computer Guys Inc. Established in 1993, DCG has helped hundreds of businesses just like yours to maintain reliable computer networks. So, call Dependable Computer Guys for small business network support at 213-261-3998 .

Dedicated Server Hosting For Commercial Website Businesses

A web server computer hosting is also known as the dedicated server web hosting or managed web hosting service. In this hosting, the someone gets an exclusive web server or servers, called as dedicated servers as well, on lease from a well establish dedicated server hosting company.

A toughened and really well organized dedicated hosting service having their own top notch data center services and adequate tech support staff is best suited for organizations and diligent Internet marketers. These business clients may require either one web server computer or may even require numerous servers for functioning their determinant business needs such as sales of products and services, customer support, and for addressing their unique enterprise needs in various countries.

For the crucial businesses, the protection and uninterrupted service, along with using advanced custom applications are vital to run their business. Also, connectivity speed, much bandwidth, and the high availability of large disk place are also important.

Adding to these essential needs, the total control of the dedicated server or servers on which their commercial business sites are located including free selection of using an appropriate operating system, software, applications, hardware equipment, and many more is also influential. Thus opting for one or many dedicated servers from a very tested and efficient dedicated hosting company is the rudimentary requirement of any complete online business.

As an additive powerful features, the management of the dedicated servers can be excellent left to the dedicated server web host company because the web host perhaps has the top teams to look after the unhampered functioning of the servers and multiple Website, maintaining the servers in a timely manner and upgrading the software, and looking after any difficulty that may take place and cause down time on the customers online services can be managed by the web host’s qualified staff instantly.

In addition, for small amount fees to the web host, the customer normally gets this quality monitoring services around the clock. Aside from being realistic cost-effective features in the long run, the leasing of dedicated servers from a proper capable and reliable dedicated hosting company allows the customer to concentrate more on the daily requirement of the commercial business, for example, marketing, management, income, accounting, and remaining daily assignment that keeps his systematic teams really busy.

Overall, for a commercial Website business needs, the dedicated servers leased from a knowledgeable and reliable dedicated hosting service are the great cost-saving solution on which the businesses can run their commercial dealing smoothly and expeditiously.

Resolving Error 501 In Exchange Server

Exchange Server Information Store databases support transaction logging i.e. before committing any data to the database, it is first written to transaction logs. If your database is ever forced to perform recovery, these transaction logs replay and restore the database to a working state. When an Exchange Server Information Store database corrupts, it marks an event indicating the root cause of the issue. You can deduce the problem and thus, take corrective measures to solve it. In cases, when no backup is available to replace the damaged database and ESEUTIL utility also fails to repair, you need to use an effective Microsoft utility that could repair and restore the damaged database.

For an instance, you might receive the below event ID in Application log of Event Viewer:

Date: date Source: ESE
Time: time Category: Logging/Recovery
Type: Error Event ID: 454
User: N/A
Computer: Servername
Description: Information Store (2184) Database recovery/restore failed with unexpected error -501


Event 454 generally indicates database corruption that occurs while restore or recovery operation. Error -501 corresponds to hexadecimal value 0xFFFFFE0B. It represents JET_errLogFileCorrupt error and shows that the recovery operation has failed because of log file corruption.


You need to solve the given issue by following these steps:

Check if all database files are consistent. If they are, you can move all corrupted log files that are contained in Exchsrvr\Mdbdata folder and then try to mount the Information Store
If applying the above step doesn’t solve the issue as databases are not consistent, you need to restore the corrupted databases from backup.
In case, no suitable backup is present, you can execute eseutil /p command to repair the damaged databases

If the error stil persists, use a powerful and safe third-party Exchange Recovery Tool to scan and repair the damaged database. Microsoft Exchange Recovery software are non-destructive tools designed with advanced technology to repair the corrupted database. These tools provide you self-explanatory interface and provide advanced set of features. In addition, you can use these products in any case of logical database corruption.

Stellar Phoenix Mailbox Exchange Recovery is a fully-competent tool to systematically repair damaged Exchange databases created with Exchange Server 5.5, 2000 and 2003. It provides safe Exchange Recovery Tool that extracts all user mailboxes by converting them into Outlook usable .pst files. The tool is capable of recovering all email messages, notes, journals, tasks and other objects.